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Carved Wooden Ritual Bowl with Handle (Duyu)
Ifugao People, Northern Luzon, Philippines
18th-19th century

length: 20.4cm, width: 13.5cm, height: 6.3cm

This bowl, carved from a single piece of wood, was used to serve food and wine. It has a dark, rich, lustrous patina and a smoothness allowing for an
attribution to the 18th or 19th centuries. The depth of the patina has given the outside of the bowl a plastic-like quality. Such a patina is possible from decades
of use and smoothness from handling, but also from being rubbed with animal fats after each meal to help protect the vessel, which in combination with soot
from the hearth gives such bowls their characteristic dark colour. The interior of the bowl does not have the same dark patina, which is also consistent with the
bowl having been used - it is where food has settled, liquid has been absorbed into the wood, and utensils have scraped along the bottom.

The example has been carved with a ring foot, a handle, and a thick rim with notched or crenulated indentations, which possibly aid with drinking from the
bowl, or are a motif preferred by the Ifugao, as witnessed by their jewellery items carved from shells which have a similar crenulated edging. Moltzau Anderson
(2010, p. 171) suggests that such bowls were communally used and that each individual had their own slot.

Related examples with a similar lustrous patina which were included in the Musee du Quai Branly 'Philippines' exhibition of 2013 are illustrated in Afable
et al
(2013, p. 178-179).

The Ifugao people inhabit the mountainous provinces of northern Luzon island in the Philippines. The religious beliefs of the Ifugao are a complex structure of
ancestor worship, animism and magical power. Numerous spiritual entities that represent natural elements, forces and phenomena, and ancestral and
metaphysical beings are acknowledged, worshipped, appeased and appealed to. Generally the gods are seen as generous and benign beings who enjoy
feasting, drinking wine and chewing betel nut, just as  the tribes people themselves do. And so there is a blending of food and beverage serving vessels
between the utilitarian and the ritual.

The bowl is free of chips and repairs. There is a shrinkage-related crack to one side but this is closed, stable and shows no movement.

References:
Afable, P.,
et al, Philippines: an Archipelago of Exchange, ACTES SUD/ Musee du Quai Branly, 2013.
Casal, G.
et al, The People and Art of the Philippines, UCLA Museum of Cultural History, 1981.
Moltzau Anderson, E.,
In the Shape of Tradition: Indigenous Art of the Northern Philippines, C. Zwartenkot Art Books, 2010.

Provenance: private European collection.

Inventory no.: 3908

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