Inventory no.: 3689

Lacquered Gilded Mandalay Burmese Buddha


Lacquered & Gilded Wooden Buddha

Mandalay, Burma

19th century

height: 49cm, width: 39cm, depth: 27.5cm

This image of the Buddha is in a naturalistic style most probably prompted by colonial influences. It has been carved in wood, lacquered and gilded and inset with glass fragments backed with coloured foil (known as hman-zi- shwei-cha) and overlaid thayo work, a process whereby thin, rolled strands of lacquer and ash putty are applied in patterns.

The image is in the Mandalay style and shows the Buddha seated in

vajrasana, with his right hand gesturing to the earth in the bhumisparsa mudra position. It is probably the most characteristic form of religious sculpture in Burma (Lowry, 1974). The posture, known as ‘calling the earth to witness’, represents the moment when the Buddha was seated in meditation under the Bodhi tree during the evening before his enlightenment. Mara asked him to name anyone who would give evidence that he had given alms, and the Buddha motioned to the earth with his right hand and said that the earth would bear witness to that – in a previous incarnation when he was known as Vessantara, he had given alms to such an extent that the earth had begun to quake.

The image shows the Buddha seated on a low platform or socle and dressed in ample robes with naturalistic folds and pleating. Earlier images of the Buddha across Southeast Asia tended to show the monastic robes in a much more schematic way.

The eyes have been inlaid with a white material, usually described as mother-of-pearl, with black pupils probably painted on with black lacquer.

The cranial protuberance (

unisha) is rounded and the head decorated with tight curls in low relief. Unusually, the curls are arrayed in a pattern on the back of the head, rather than being in a more typical, somewhat random manner.

The image has been lacquered with cinnabar-red lacquer and then gilded.

Although carved of wood, the image seems to have been hollowed out to make it lighter and the base has been sealed with a flattened wooden segment, thus making it less heavy than it first might appear to be.

Overall, the image is very sculptural and decorative: the naturalistic flow of the robes, and the refinement of the face, are particularly pleasing. The overall condition is very good. There are minor losses to the surface decoration here and there as can be expected. There is also some light but stable superficial cracking along the joins. Again, this is to be expected.


Fraser-Lu, S., Burmese Lacquerware, White Orchid Books, 2000.

Fraser-Lu, S., & D.M. Stadtner,

Buddhist Art of Myanmar, Asia Society Museum, 2015.

Karow, O.,

Burmese Buddhist Sculpture: The Johan Moger Collection, White Lotus, 1991.

Green, A., & T.R. Blurton (eds.),

Burma: Art and Archaeology, The British Museum Press, 2002.

Lowry, J.,

Burmese Art, Victoria and Albert Museum, 1974.

McGill, F. (ed.),

Emerald Cities: Arts of Siam and Burma, 1775-1950, Asian Art Museum, 2009.


UK art market

Inventory no.: 3689